This week, The Winter Show announced upcoming 2022 edition, including notable booth presentations and special activations at the fair. The 68th edition of the Show takes place April 1–10, 2022 at 660 Madison Avenue, the former flagship location of Barneys New York, following the postponement of the January show due to the surge in COVID-19 cases. Following this temporary move, The Winter Show, a benefit for East Side House Settlement, will return in 2023 to its longtime home at the Park Avenue Armory.
The 2022 edition features over 60 exhibitors across four floors of 660 Madison Avenue’s iconic building, presenting museum-quality works that span art, antiques, and design, from antiquities to contemporary art. The booths are arranged non-chronologically, allowing for a lively exchange across time periods, regions, artists, and makers. The Show includes a number of thematic presentations and specially curated displays in collaboration with notable designers.
Spend the day ~ have lunch at the cafe’ on the 2nd floor, a glass of wine at Freds on Five Wine Bar, get off your feet and relax at the second floor’s NYC&G Lounge.
In keeping with The Winter Show’s commitment to presenting works that are the highest standards of quality in the art market, every object that is presented on the Show floor is vetted for authenticity, date, and condition by a committee of more than 120 experts from the United States and Europe.
“We are thrilled that The Winter Show will once again take place in person in New York City. Although it will look slightly different from the fair we have become so familiar with, this is a true comeback story that can only happen in New York. The Success of our exhibitors is at the forefront of our decisions, and we are excited to offer such a dynamic platform at 660 Madison to showcase their works.“…… Executive Director Helen Allen.
Exhibitor highlights at the 2022 fair include:
- Boccara (New York, USA) presents a unique tapestry that was designed by Alexander Calder and woven in the Cauquil-Prince workshop in Paris, as well as works by important artists of the modernist era and mid-century tapestry renaissance such as Sonia Delaunay and Jean Lurçat.
- Debra Force Fine Art, Inc., (New York, USA) specializing in American paintings, drawings, and sculpture from the 18th-20th centuries, brings a pastel by James McNeill Whistler, Campanile at Lido – one of his earliest pastels made in Venice upon the artist’s arrival in 1879.
- Milord Antiqués (Montreal, Quebec) features a suite of 17 stained glass panels representing symbolic images of the Old and New Testament by Max Ingrand, alongside fine 18th, 19th and 20th century furniture and works of art ranging from classical pieces to unique modernist designs.
- Richard Green (London, UK) showcases a painting by Pierre Bonnard, Paysage d’automne (environs de Vernon) from 1915, among further paintings by notable artists from the 17th to the 21st century.
Curated and collaborative booths:
- Adam Williams Fine Art Ltd (New York, USA), dealers in fine European Old Master paintings from the 15th to mid-19th centuries, and Åmells (Stockholm, Sweden), specialists in Scandinavian art from the 18th century through today, will share a booth for a collaborative presentation of works by both galleries.
- Guy Regal NYC (New York, USA) showcases a curated booth of 20th and 21st century creators, including Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann, Lina Bo Bardi, Philip and Kelvin LaVerne, and Paul Evans. The gallery will work with the interior designer Studio Todd Raymond, who will be creating an environment that will showcase these individual works of art as a unified vision.
- H. Blairman & Sons Ltd’s (London, UK) presents English Arts & Crafts furniture and metalware featuring makers such as Gordon Russell, Alfred Wickham Jarvis, and W.A.S. Benson – including works that the gallery is showing for the first time.
- Joan B Mirviss LTD (New York, USA) features KAZARI: Beyond Decoration at the 2022 fair. Drawing from the Japanese term kazari, the gallery’s spring exhibition explores this concept of traditional Japanese aesthetics realized in a multitude of patterns, surface treatments, designs, and colors in prints, paintings, and ceramics.
- Maison Gerard (New York, USA) presents Galaxy II, an exceptional walnut sculpted wall by the Massachusetts-based artist and master woodwork Michael Coffey. This work is a variation of the artists “geolithic style” which Coffey debuted in 1972 at Directional Furniture. Also being showcased are panels designed by Jean Dupas from the famed USS Normandie, and a nearly 13-foot-long sofa that was designed by Jean- Maurice Rothschild, updated with contemporary upholstery by Dedar.
Additional notable art and objects on view include:
- Carolle Thibaut-Pomerantz (Paris, France) highlights a rare set of French antique wallpaper panels Allégories des Arts, designed by Percier and Fontaine circa 1800 with wood-block printing by Jacquemart Manufacture, Paris.
- Kentshire (New York, USA) brings an extraordinary antique gold and faience Masonic tour necklace of swag design featuring enameled snakes, faience scarabs, fish pendants, and other symbols evoking the cult of Isis from circa 1866.
- Koopman Rare Art (London, UK) brings a George IV Shield for The King of Hanover, emblematic of early 19th century English silver and a triumphant collaboration between the firm of Rundell and Bridge and leading designer John Flaxman.
- Les Enluminures (Chicago and New York, USA; Paris, France) exhibits The Hours of Le Goux de La Berchère (Use of Paris), an exceptional manuscript in near-perfect condition. Produced in Paris by the Bedford Master’s chief disciple, The Master of the Munich Golden Legend is typical of his earliest Parisian work when he was most under the influence of the Bedford Master before his Rouen period. Its binding flaunts the arms of the Archbishop of Narbonne (1703-1719), Charles Le Goux de la Berchère, owner of one of the most important libraries in France at the time.
- Lowell Libson & Jonny Yarker Ltd (London, UK) features an important recently rediscovered drawing by Angelica Kauffman (1741-1807). Depicting the Polish aristocrat Anna Jadwiga Zamoyska, the drawing was made in preparation for one of Kauffman’s most significant late portraits: a large, multi-figure work commissioned by Count Andrzej Zamoyski in 1791.
- Macklowe Gallery (New York, USA) highlights a selection of Tiffany Lamps and Tiffany glass, fine jewelry, and French Art Nouveau furniture and objects, including lithographs by artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.
- Robert Young Antiques (London, UK), specialists in original antique Folk Art and Vernacular Furniture, showcase an exceptional Folk Art weather house modeled as a villa from circa 1900.
Opening Night Party (above and below) for The Winter Show 2022.
In addition to the 60 booths on view at 660 Madison Avenue, there will be ten exhibitors with virtual presentations on The Winter Show’s website: Daniel Blau (München, Germany); David A. Schorsch–Eileen M. Smiles American Antiques (Woodbury, CT, USA); James Graham-Stewart (London, UK); Kelly Kinzle (New Oxford, PA, USA); Lost City Arts (New York, NY, USA); MacConnal-Mason Gallery (London, UK); Nathan Liverant and Son LLC (Colchester, CT, USA); The Old Print Shop, Inc. (New York, USA); Schwarz Gallery (Philadelphia, PA, USA); and Thistlethwaite Americana (Alexandria, VA, USA).
“The Winter Show has long been a part of the East Side House tradition and it is vital in raising the funds necessary to continue to serve those New Yorkers most in need. We remain grateful to our partners, colleagues, and exhibitors for their support and understanding as we navigated this necessary shift.” …. Daniel Diaz, Executive Director of East Side House Settlement.
Saturday, April 2nd, 2:30pm ~ Reimagine the Museum: Between Art, Architecture, and Community. Guillaume Kientz, Director and CEO of the Hispanic Society Museum & Library; Philippe de Montebello,, Chairmann of the Board, Hispanic Society Museum & Library; and Annabelle Selldorf, Founder of Selldorf Architects. Presented in partnership with Sir John Shane’s Museum Foundation.
Saturday, April 2nd, 4:30pm ~ Vibe Shift: Dressing Our Lives for Our Times. Moderated by Jonquil O’Reilly, VP specialist, Christie’s, with participants Patrick Bavasi, Director, Hyde Park Antiques; Victor de Souza, Fashion Designer; Elena Kanagy-Loux, Specialist, Metropolitan Museum of Art; Edward Lobrano, Interior Designer.
Monday, April 4th, 2pm ~ The Enduring Legacy of Louis Comfort Tiffany. Alice Cooney Frelinghuysen, The Anthony W. and Lulu C. Wang Curator of American Decorative Arts, The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Jennifer Thalheimer, Curator at Charles Hosmer Morse Museum of American Art; and Arlie Sulka, expert ann Louis Comfort Tiffany and Tiffany Studios and owner of Lillian Nassau LLC.
Wednesday, April 6th, 2pm ~ Rowdy Meadow: The Extraordinary Creation of an Art-Filled, Czech-Cubist-Inspired House. Peter Pennoyer, Principal Partner of Peter Pennoyer Architects, and Jacqueline Terrebonne, Editor in Chief of Galerie magazine.
Wednesday, April 6th, 5pm ~ What Is The New Eclectic Taste Of The Times? Todd Raymond, Todd Raymond Studio; Amy Liu, AD 100 Designer; Benoist Drut, Maison Gerard; John Smiroldo, President & Founder of InCollect.
Thursday, April 7th, 4pm ~ The Modern Guide to Building an Antique Collection to Wear Today and Pass Down Tomorrow. Beth Bernstein, Author of “The Modern Guide To Antique Jewelry”; Ben Macklowe, Macklowe Gallery; Carrie Imberman, Kentshire; Peter Schaffer, A La Virile Russia.
Saturday, April 9th, 2pm ~ Craft in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Moderated by Benjamin Miller, host, Curious Objects podcast for The Magazine ANTIQUES, Director of Research, S.J. Shrubsole. Panelists: Abraham Thomas, Daniel Brodsky Curator of Modern Architecture, Design, and Decorative Arts, The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Roxanne Jackson, Ceramicist; and Andrew LaMar Hopkins, Artist.
Sunday, April 10th, 2pm ~ Portraits of Power. Aimee Ng,, Curator, The Frick Collection; Nicholas Hall, President at Nicholas Hall; Jonny Yarker, Director of Lowell Libson & Jonny Yarker Ltd; and Robert Simon, President of Robert Simon Fine Art.
Window Display Design:
Each year, the Fair invites leaders from the worlds of interior design and architecture to lend their voices as Design Co-Chairs, reinforcing the Show’s deep relationship with the design community. The Show’s 2022 Design Co-Chairs are Mark Ferguson, Corey Damen Jenkins, and Andrew Oyen; the Design Council Honorary Co-Chairs are Wendy Goodman, Young Huh, and Keita Turner.
Paying homage to the storied past of 660 Madison Avenue, the former flagship of Barneys New York, The Winter Show’s 2022 Design Co-Chairs and Design Council Honorary Co- Chairs will further activate the building with designs for the beloved street-level windows featuring art and objects from the Show’s 2022 exhibitors.
The four large-format windows facing Madison Avenue will be designed by Corey Damen Jenkins, Young Huh, Keita Turner, and Ferguson & Shamamian Architects’ Mark Ferguson and Andrew Oyen.
Jewelry and decorative arts historian Levi Higgs will design vignettes for the adjacent jewelry box windows on either side of the building’s entrance.
Collaborations and Partnerships:
The Winter Show 2022’s lead sponsor is Bank of America.
At Bank of America, we’re guided by a common purpose to help make financial lives better, through the power of every connection. We’re delivering on this through responsible growth with a focus on our environmental, social, and governance (ESG) leadership. ESG is embedded across our eight lines of business and reflects how we help fuel the global economy, build trust and credibility, and represent a company that people want to work for, invest in, and do business with. It’s demonstrated in the inclusive and supportive workplace we create for our employees, the responsible products and services we offer our clients, and the impact we make around the world in helping local economies thrive. An important part of this work is forming strong partnerships with nonprofits and advocacy groups, such as community, consumer, and environmental organizations, to bring together our collective networks and expertise to achieve greater impact.
We’re proud to serve as the Lead Sponsor of The Winter Show and to continue our long standing partnership with East Side House Settlement. East Side House has twice been recognized by Bank of America with our Neighborhood Builders Award for their commitment to addressing economic and social issues in the Bronx. We’re honored to support one of this city’s oldest human services providers as they remain on the frontlines of the pandemic serving those most in need.
Trove Interactive Photo booth ~ Trove, the modern art-inspired wallcoverings design house based in New York City, joins The Winter Show in partnership to present an interactive photo booth featuring Trove’s newest designs.
Cabana /Schumacher activation ~ This collection is the result of an exciting collaboration between the heritage brand and style leader, Schumacher, which specializes in luxury fabrics and wallcoverings; and Cabana, a captivating lifestyle brand with an exquisite magazine at its center that immerses readers in extraordinary stylish spaces from around the world.
The Magazine ANTIQUES booth ~ The Magazine ANTIQUES celebrates its centennial anniversary with a booth at The Winter Show that highlights the achievements of the publication over the past century. Visitors can meet with editors and the publisher to learn about the role the magazine has played in fostering scholarship in the fine and decorative arts and developing the market for art and antiques. See how the magazine has evolved over the years, and the direction it is taking in the digital age—and take advantage of a special subscription offer for all Winter Show attendees.
2022 Winter Show Exhibitors:
A La Vieille Russie, Inc., New York, USA Adam Williams Fine Art Ltd, New York, USA Adelson Galleries, Inc., New York, USA Ambrose Naumann Fine Art, New York, USA Åmells, Stockholm, Sweden; Arader Galleries, New York, USA Aronson of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Barbara Israel Garden Antiques, New York, USA; Bernard & S. Dean Levy Inc., New York, USA Bernard Goldberg Fine Arts, LLC, New York, USA; Boccara, New York, USA Bowman Sculpture, London, UK
Daniel Crouch Rare Books, London, UK; New York, USA; David A. Schorsch–Eileen M. Smiles American Antiques, Woodbury, CT, USA*; Day & Faber, London, UK; Debra Force Fine Art, Inc., New York, USA Didier Ltd, London, UK
Galerie Perrin, Paris, France; Guy Regal NYC, New York, USA
H. Blairman & Sons Ltd, London, UK; Hill-Stone, Inc., South Dartmouth, MA, USA Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York, USA Hyde Park Antiques, Ltd., New York, USA
James Graham-Stewart, London, UK* James Robinson, Inc., New York, USA; Joan B Mirviss LTD, New York, USA Kelly Kinzle, New Oxford, PA, USA* Kentshire, New York, USA Keshishian, London, UK; Koopman Rare Art, London, UK
Lawrence Steigrad Fine Arts, New York, USA Les Enluminures, Chicago and New York, USA; Paris, France Lillian Nassau LLC, New York, USA Lost City Arts, New York, USA* Lowell Libson & Jonny Yarker Ltd, London, UK
MacConnal-Mason Gallery, London, UK* Macklowe Gallery, Ltd., New York, USA Maison Gerard, New York, USA; Martyn Gregory, London, UK Michael Goedhuis, London, UK Michele Beiny, Inc., New York, USA Milord Antiqués, Montreal, Quebec
Nathan Liverant and Son LLC, Colchester, CT, USA*; The Old Print Shop, Inc., New York, USA* Patrick & Ondine Mestdagh, Brussels, Belgium Peter Finer, London, UK
Peter Pap Oriental Rugs, Inc., San Francisco, Dublin, NH, USA; Ralph M. Chait Galleries, Inc., New York, USA Red Fox Fine Art, Middleburg, VA, USA Richard Green, London, UK
Robert Simon Fine Art, New York, USA Robert Young Antiques, London, UK Rolleston Ltd, London, UK; Ronald Phillips Ltd, London, UK Schwarz Gallery, Philadelphia, PA, USA*; S. J. Shrubsole, New York, USA Simon Teakle Fine Jewelry & Objects, Greenwich, CT, USA; Spencer Marks, Southampton, MA, USA Tambaran, New York, USA
Thistlethwaite Americana, Alexandria, VA, USA*; Thomas Colville Fine Art, Guilford, CT, USA Thomas Heneage Art Books, London, UK Thomsen Gallery, New York, USA Throckmorton Fine Art, New York, USA Véronique Bamps, Monaco
* Indicates Online Exhibitor Only
The Winter Show is the leading art, antiques, and design fair in America, featuring the world’s top experts in the fine and decorative arts. The Fair was established in 1954 as a benefit for East Side House Settlement and, by the end of the decade, had firmly established itself as the leading event of its kind in the United States. Each object at The Winter Show is vetted for authenticity, date, and condition by a committee of 120 experts from the United States and Europe to maintain the highest standards of quality in the art market. All revenues from the Fair’s general admissions and the net proceeds from the Opening Night Party and other special events benefit East Side House and contribute substantially to its robust community programming. No part of sales made by exhibitors is received by East Side House.
The Winter Show runs April 1–10, 2022, at 660 Madison Avenue, the former flagship location of Barneys New York. Hours of admission are Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 12–8 PM; Tuesday and Thursday, 12–4:30 PM; Saturday, 12–7 PM; and Sunday, 12–6 PM. Daily admission is $30, which includes a copy of the Show’s award-winning catalogue.
East Side House Settlement is a community-based organization located in the South Bronx. Recognizing education as the key to economic and civic opportunity, East Side House works with schools, community centers, and other partners to bring quality education and resources to individuals in need, helping approximately 14,000 residents of the Bronx and Northern Manhattan improve their lives each year.
Opening Night Party will be held on Thursday, March 31st from 5-9pm; Young Collectors Night will be held on Thursday, april 7th from 6-9pm; Connoisseurs Night on Friday, April 8th from 5:30 to 8pm.
The Winter Show 2022, 660 Madison Avenue at 61st Street, NYC will open daily at Noon. Closing times may vary. Follow The Winter Show on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram
In the end…… Here’s an Update from the exhibitors report, April 15, 2022:
“We were thrilled with the response from both our visitors and our dealers,” said Executive Director Helen Allen. “The consensus was that people loved the sense of openness and exploration at 660 Madison, and what’s more everyone was eager to return to an in-person show. Visitors acquired important works ranging from notable maps and French paintings to rare 18th century English furniture to contemporary American glass and Japanese ceramics. Thanks to the hard work and collaboration of our exhibitors, supporters, and partners, including our lead sponsor Bank of America, we were able to bring together a spectacular fair to once again support and bring awareness to the incredible work of East Side House.”
Exhibitors reported strong sales throughout the run of the fair, beginning with the opening night on March 31 and up until the final weekend of the Show, including sales made to long-time collectors and opportunities to engage with a new collector base. The Winter Show maintains the highest standards of quality in the art market, with each object vetted for authenticity, date, and condition by a committee of more than 120 experts from the United States and Europe.
- Aronson of Amsterdam (Amsterdam, Netherlands) sold to a private collector a Blue and White Baluster-Shaped Flower Holder and Cover, Delft, the Netherlands, circa 1680. The vase, marked for Samuel van Eenhoorn, is one of the earliest known Delftware flower vases.
- Barbara Israel Garden Antiques (New York, USA) sold numerous works to designers and private clients, including a fine and important cast-iron retriever attributed to Wood & Perot of Philadelphia, circa 1860, a Regency wrought-iron games seat, circa 1830, a pair of carved marble campana-form urns in the neoclassical style, a carved marble figure representing Ceres from the mid-to-late 19th century, and others.
- Bernard Goldberg Fine Arts, LLC (New York, USA) sold a Diana Chandelier by Nils Fougstedt, made in Stockholm, 1930, which was featured in the exterior window display designed by Ferguson & Shamamian Architects
- Cohen & Cohen (Reigate, UK) sold a pair of Chinese armorial porcelain chargers with the arms of Okeover from the Qianlong period, circa 1743, for a six-figure sum, among other works including a massive Chinese export porcelain charger with a diameter of 21 inches, decorated in famille rose from the Yongzheng period, circa 1730.
- Angus Wilkie owner of Cove Landing (New York, USA) noted, “Cove Landing was pleased by the organizer’s efforts to create an organic layout throughout the building. Sales to new customers were particularly strong, and there was also significant museum interest. Sales included several pieces of 18th and 19th century English and Anglo-Indian furniture, a mid-19th century Turkish silk embroidery hanging, a set of four 19th century Italian trompe l’oeil watercolors, and many small objects including Berlin ironwork, treen, and English pearlware, among others.”
- Debra Force Fine Art, Inc. (New York, USA) sold an Arabesque Mirror by John La Farge from circa 1883 in the $100,000 range to a private collector, as well as a work on paper by Fidelia Bridges, Swallows near Stratford, Connecticut, from circa the 1870s in the $35,000 range to a private collector.
- Blairman & Sons Ltd (London, UK) reported strong sales and added, “We eagerly anticipated this year’s Winter Show in its temporary location. The Show’s presentation in a totally different environment has been widely acknowledged as an overwhelming success. We have reconnected with many private and institutional collectors and friends over the past ten days. A wide range of sales have been made, including works by A.W.N. Pugin, Philip Webb and Christopher Dresser.” – Martin P. Levy, Director, H. Blairman & Sons Ltd.
- Joan B Mirviss LTD (New York, USA) sold Japanese artworks across mediums and time periods in collections both in the US and abroad, including a Multi-planar vessel, 2021, by Sawada Hayato priced under $10,000, a ōban tate-e work by Utagawa Kunisada from circa 1831 with a woman playing the shamisen is juxtaposed against a background of jōruri libretti under $10,000, and a three color-splash glazed square (henko) flask-vase by Kawai Kanjirō from circa 1960 under $75,000, among others.
- Jonny Yarker of Lowell Libson & Jonny Yarker Ltd (London, UK) noted, “It’s been great to be back in New York and exhibiting at the Winter Show. We have seen lots of friends and clients and done some excellent business; selling to both new and established collectors. The Winter Show continues to attract a fantastic range of knowledgeable and engaged collectors, as well as a good sample of curators from major US museums.”
- Matthew Imberman, President of Kentshire (New York, USA) said, “Kentshire had strong sales to new and returning clients, including: an important Art Deco diamond bracelet by René Boivin, an iconic gold and diamond bracelet by Cartier, a substantial pair of antique diamond earrings, two mid-century bracelets by Tiffany, an impressive Art Deco diamond ring, two very unusual antique enamel and gold bracelets, as well as a number of smaller items spanning a variety of price points and dates. We want to thank everyone who worked tirelessly to make this special spring edition of The Winter Show such a marvelous success!”
- Koopman Rare Art (London, UK) sold a George I inkstand made by Paul de Lamerie in 1725 and bearing the arms of Baillie and a Pair of Superb Rococo Candlesticks made in London in 1744 by Peter Archambo.
- Lillian Nassau LLC (New York, USA) sold doors made by Wendell Castle for the boardroom in the executive offices for the Gannett Co. in Rochester, New York, as well as works by Tiffany Studios including lamps, blown glass, and metalwork, all going into private collections.
- Macklowe Gallery (New York, USA) reported sales of an Art Moderne Silver Gilt and Silver Ring by Jean Després from circa 1931, a Tiffany Studios New York “Dragonfly” Table Lamp designed circa 1905-1913, and a Burgun & Schverer “Irises” Cameo Glass Vase, circa 1900, all to private collections.
- Martyn Gregory (London, UK) sold a notable painting, Portrait of the hong merchant Puankhequa II, attributed to Spoilum.
- Michael Goedhuis, owner of Michael Goedhuis (London, UK) noted, “The visionary achievement by the Winter Show organizers to shift us to the old Barney’s, with all that this marvelous venue has to offer, worked wonders. We were able both to retain the inimitable flavor of the Armory and its varied audience on the one hand and were delightfully encouraged to encounter a totally new and unexpected clientele on the other. In short, a huge success for East Side and the Winter Show under impossible circumstances.”
- Milord Antiquités (Montreal, Quebec) owner Francis Lord said, “It was our first time exhibiting at The Winter Show and we were honoured to be amongst a selection of some of the dealers in the trade. The organization of the show was impeccable, there was a steady flow of clients coming through all week, knowledgeable and interested visitors. We met with new and existing clients at this special edition of the show being held at the former Barneys location. We had a great response from clients in regards to the inventory we showed, we concluded some sales and are confident that further business will happen in the next few days. We hope to be back next year!”
- Robert Simon Fine Art (New York, USA) sold a late 17th- early 18th century painting Torment of the Evil Tongues (An Allegory of Lying and its Consequences) that was offered at $100,000.
- Ronald Phillips Ltd (London, UK) reported strong sales including a Pair of George I Gilt Gesso Tables Attributed to John Belchier, English, circa 1720, and a Set of Four George III Mahogany Library Armchairs, English, circa 1760.
- Spencer Marks (Southampton, MA, USA) sold multiple pieces including a Tiffany and Co. Japonesque Vase attributed to Edward C. Moore that almost certainly was designed and exhibited at the 1878 Paris Exhibition Universelle, a Tiffany and Co. Butterfly Salver in Antique Sterling Silver and Other Metals, circa 1880, and an Allan Adler & Porter Blanchard Massive Hand Wrought Sterling Silver Punch Service, c. 1950, among other works.